Parts of Speech: Definition, Types and Examples

If we realize every sentence we write or speak in English includes words that fall into some of parts of speech.

Part of speech is lexical category to which a word is assigned based on its function in a sentence.

According to Britannica.com, there are eight parts of speech in traditional English grammar: pronoun, adjective, noun, conjunction, adverb, verb, interjection, and preposition. We may abbreviate them to PANCAVIP, making them easier to understand. In linguistics, parts of speech are more typically called word classes. Here are eight parts of speech:

1. Pronouns
A pronoun is used in place of a noun. There are many subcategories of pronouns, including but not limited to personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, and reflexive pronouns.

-Personal pronouns replace names of people, places, things, and ideas. Examples of personal pronouns include she, he, it, and they.

-Possessive pronouns replace nouns and indicate ownership. Because they modify nouns, they are also frequently categorized as adjectives. Examples of possessive pronouns include his, its, mine, and theirs.

-Reflexive pronouns replace nouns when the subject and object in a sentence are the same. Examples of reflexive pronouns include myself, herself, themselves, and oneself.

2. Adjectives
An adjective describes or modifies a noun or pronoun.

Adjectives provide information about the qualities or classifications of a person or thing. Examples of adjectives include tall, purple, funny, and antique.

3. Nouns
A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. There are many subcategories of nouns, including common nouns, proper nouns, collective nouns, and abstract nouns.

-Common nouns name basic things that can be seen and touched. Examples of common nouns include dog, banana, table, and book.

-Proper nouns name specific people, places, and things, and they begin with a capital letter. Examples of proper nouns include George, New York City, Empire State Building, and Atlantic Ocean.

-Collective nouns name groups of people or things. Examples of collective nouns include team, flock, litter, and batch.

-Abstract nouns name things that cannot be seen or touched. Examples of abstract nouns include happiness, truth, friendship, and beauty.

4. Conjunctions
A conjunction links words, phrases, and clauses. There are two main subcategories of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

-Coordinating conjunctions link words, phrases, and clauses that are equally important in a sentence. Examples of coordinating conjunctions include and, but, or, and so.

– Subordinating conjunctions link subordinate clauses to a sentence. Examples of subordinating conjunctions include because, although, before, and since.

5. Adverbs
An adverb describes or modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

Adverbs provide information about the manner in which things are done, as well as when, where, and why they are done. Examples of adverbs include quickly, extremely, fiercely, and yesterday.

6. Verbs
A verb indicates a state of doing, being, or having. There are three main subcategories of verbs: doing verbs, being verbs, and having verbs.

-Doing verbs indicate actions. Examples of doing verbs include run, wash, explain, and wonder.

-Being and having verbs do not indicate action and are considered relating (or linking) verbs because they connect one piece of information to another. Examples of being and having verbs include am, are, has, and own.

7. Interjections
An interjection acts as an exclamation. Interjections typically express emotional reactions to information in an adjoining sentence. Examples of interjections include wow, ouch, oops, and phew.

8. Prepositions
A preposition provides information about the relative position of a noun or pronoun. Prepositions can indicate direction, time, place, location, and spatial relationships of objects. Examples of prepositions include on, in, across, and after.

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